Durch den ersten Teil City-Management in Deutschland werden so viele Bewertungsfaktoren gefunden werden, daß man die Zukunft für das City- Management. City-Carrier stehen vor der Entscheidung, in welchem Umfang Investitionen Markteintritt der City-Carrier mit unterschiedlichen Gesellschafterstrukturen. BRACHER, T. (): Reurbanisierung, City Maut und Wettbewerb im ÖPNV NET (): Deutschland bleibt digital gespalten, Artikel vom Juni
Deutschland City VideoBerlin City Germany
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Das bedeutet bedauerlicherweise auch, dass der Zensus keine verlässlichen Ergebnisse zu diesen Religionen in Deutschland bereitstellen kann.
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Find more about Germany at Wikipedia's sister projects. Timeline Historiography Military history. Articles related to Germany. States of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe. States with limited recognition. Faroe Islands 1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark.
Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty. Countries bordering the Baltic Sea. Member states of the European Union.
Future enlargement of the European Union. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Multinational Enterprises Testing of Chemicals.
Kitts and Nevis St. Czechoslovakia — Saar assoc. Retrieved from " https: Uses editors parameter Articles with German-language external links Pages with login required references or sources Pages containing links to subscription-only content CS1 maint: Views Read View source View history.
Frank-Walter Steinmeier President since Angela Merkel Chancellor since Outline Index Book Category Portal. Angela Merkel 22 November Adolf Hitler Führer und Reichskanzler.
Friedrich III of Germany. Wilhelm I of Germany. Adolf Hitler Third Reich. Prince Maximilian of Baden. Chlodwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Lucas Cranach the Elder. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Vi ber om ursäkt för olägenheterna. Hotell i varumärket Ibis gör sitt yttersta för att erbjuda dig bästa möjliga servicekvalitet för varje vistelse.
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Uppmärksam personal i frukostrummet. We would like to thank on behalf of the entire staff of IBIS Bremen City you for your visit and look forward to welcoming you again with us.Learn More in these related Britannica articles: At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully weltmeister qualifiziert their context. Die komfortable Suite ist in warmen Farbtönen gehalten und bietet ein Kingsize-Bett sowie Fenster, die sich öffnen lassen. Andere Reiseziele Buchen englische Website. This is a list of selected cities, towns, and other populated places in Germanyordered alphabetically by state. Lakes in and around Munich Beautiful lakes and rivers outside and within the city limit. Hotel Citadines Munich Arnulfpark. Bitte lesen Ukraine rußland vor der Buchung die verbindlichen Angebotsdetails. Das traditionelle Zimmer ist in warmen und ruhigen Tönen gehalten und bietet schallisolierte Fenster, die sich öffnen lassen. Jobs in Munich Find out casinospiel zeus2 employers are hiring.
Deutschland city -Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Im Urlaub schreibt Beise Bücher, zuletzt: Schon als Schüler war der Journalismus sein Berufsziel, das er nie aus den Augen verloren hat und auch 30 Jahre nach den ersten Schreibversuchen nicht bereut. Official Website for the City of Munich. Guenter Bernhard Paul Entweder bringt die Maut, die im digitalen Zeitalter relativ problemlos organisiert werden könnte, Autofahrer dazu, ihr Verhalten zu ändern. Lakes in and around Munich Beautiful lakes and rivers outside and within the city limit.
Having no male heirs, he had convinced the Electors to retain Habsburg hegemony in the office of the emperor by agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction.
From , the dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated the German history. In , then again in and , the two dominant German states of Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire , agreed to the Partitions of Poland ; dividing among themselves the lands of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.
As a result of the partitions, millions of Polish speaking inhabitants fell under the rule of the two German monarchies.
However, the annexed territories though incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Realm, were not legally considered as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.
In the Imperium was dissolved; many German states, particularly the Rhineland states , fell under the influence of France. Following the fall of Napoleon , the Congress of Vienna convened in founded the German Confederation Deutscher Bund , a loose league of 39 sovereign states.
The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president of the Confederation reflected the Congress's failure to accept Prussia's rising influence among the German states, and acerbated the long-standing competition between the Hohenzollern and Habsburg interests.
Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Metternich.
The Zollverein , a tariff union, furthered economic unity in the German states. The Hambach Festival in May was a main event in support of German unity , freedom and democracy.
In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europe , which established a republic in France , intellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of in the German states.
King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement.
Bismarck successfully concluded war on Denmark in , which promoted German over Danish interests in the Jutland peninsula.
The subsequent and decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of enabled him to create the North German Confederation Norddeutscher Bund which excluded Austria from the federation's affairs.
After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War , the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in at Versailles , uniting all the scattered parts of Germany except Austria and the German-speaking parts of Switzerland.
Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the Hohenzollern King of Prussia ruled as its concurrent Emperor, and Berlin became its capital.
In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany , Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany under Emperor William I secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances, isolating France by diplomatic means, and avoiding war.
Under Wilhelm II , Germany, like other European powers, took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries.
Most alliances in which Germany had previously been involved were not renewed. This resulted in creation of a dual alliance with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary , promoting at least benevolent neutrality if not outright military support.
Similarly, Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances that would protect them against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.
In what became known as the "First Genocide of the Twentieth-Century", between and , the German colonial government in South West Africa present-day Namibia ordered the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples , as a punitive measure for an uprising against German colonial rule.
After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed,  a general armistice ended the fighting on 11 November, and German troops returned home.
Germany's new political leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in In this treaty, Germany, as part of the Central Powers , accepted defeat by the Allies in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time.
Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating and unjust and it was later seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.
Germany was declared a republic at the beginning of the German Revolution in November It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr military and other conservative, nationalistic and monarchist factions.
After a tumultuous period of bloody street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of —23 , a debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in ushered in the Golden Twenties , an era of increasing artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.
Historians describe the period between and as one of "partial stabilisation. After the federal election of , Chancellor Heinrich Brüning 's government was enabled by President Paul von Hindenburg to act without parliamentary approval.
The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won the special federal election of After a series of unsuccessful cabinets, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January Using deficit spending, a government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works projects.
In public work projects of , 1. In , the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities.
Germany also reacquired control of the Saar in ,  remilitarised the Rhineland in , annexed Austria in , annexed the Sudetenland in with the Munich Agreement and in direct violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia with the proclamation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March Kristallnacht , or the "Night of Broken Glass", saw the burning of hundreds of synagogues, the destruction of thousands of Jewish businesses, and the arrest of around 30, Jewish men by Nazi forces inside Germany.
Many Jewish women were arrested and placed in jails and a curfew was placed on the Jewish people in Germany.
In August , Hitler's government negotiated and signed the Molotov—Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence.
In response to Hitler's actions, two days later, on 3 September, after a British ultimatum to Germany to cease military operations was ignored, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. By , Germany and other Axis powers controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa , but following the Soviet Union's victory at the Battle of Stalingrad , the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in , German forces suffered repeated military defeats.
By late , the Western allies had entered Germany despite one final German counter offensive in the Ardennes Forest.
In what later became known as The Holocaust , the German government persecuted minorities and used a network of concentration and death camps across Europe to conduct a genocide of what they considered to be inferior peoples.
In total, over 10 million civilians were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews , between , and 1,, Romani , , persons with disabilities , thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses , thousands of homosexuals , and hundreds of thousands of members of the political and religious opposition from Germany, and occupied countries Nacht und Nebel.
Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory. After Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four military occupation zones.
They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany. East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was an artificial and temporary status quo.
West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a " social market economy ". Starting in West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan and used this to rebuild its industry.
Under his and Ludwig Erhard 's leadership, the country enjoyed prolonged economic growth beginning in the early s, that became known as an " economic miracle " Wirtschaftswunder.
Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members Politbüro of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany , supported by the Stasi , an immense secret service controlling many aspects of the society.
Gorbachov , Tear down this wall! Kennedy 's famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech of 26 June In summer , Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open the borders, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary.
This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. The East German authorities eased the border restrictions, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help retain East Germany as a state, the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process.
This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 September , under which the four occupying powers renounced their rights under the Instrument of Surrender , and Germany regained full sovereignty.
This permitted German reunification on 3 October , with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.
The united Germany is considered to be the enlarged continuation of the Federal Republic of Germany and not a successor state.
As such, it retained all of West Germany's memberships in international organisations. Among the major projects of the two Schröder legislatures was the Agenda to reform the labour market to become more flexible and reduce unemployment.
Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union. Together with its European partners Germany signed the Maastricht Treaty in , established the Eurozone in , and signed the Lisbon Treaty in In the elections , Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand coalition.
In , a liberal - conservative coalition under Merkel assumed leadership of the country. In , a grand coalition was established in a Third Merkel cabinet.
Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration , the energy transition Energiewende for a sustainable energy supply, the " Debt Brake " for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate significantly pronatalism , and high-tech strategies for the future transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.
Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in as it became the final destination of choice for many asylum seekers from Africa and the Middle East entering the EU.
The country took in over a million refugees and migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states based on their tax income and existing population density.
Germany is in Western and Central Europe , with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, Switzerland to the south-southwest, France, Luxembourg and Belgium lie to the west, and the Netherlands to the northwest.
Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. With Switzerland and Austria, Germany also shares a border on the fresh-water Lake Constance , the third largest lake in Central Europe.
It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 64th largest in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps highest point: The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany lowest point: Germany's alpine glaciers are experiencing deglaciation.
Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash , timber, lignite , uranium , copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land and water.
Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate.
This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic. Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: The east has a more continental climate: Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental.
In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.
Though the German climate is rarely extreme, there are occasional spikes of cold or heat. Winter temperatures can sometimes drop to two-digit negative temperatures for a few days in a row.
Conversely, summer can see periods of very high temperatures for a week or two. The recorded extremes are a maximum of The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine.
Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Beeches , oaks , and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation.
Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns , flowers , fungi , and mosses.
Wild animals include roe deer , wild boar , mouflon a subspecies of wild sheep , fox , badger , hare , and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.
In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves , as well as 98 nature parks. More than registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany, which is believed to be the largest number in any country.
Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions in Germany. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region Germany is a federal , parliamentary , representative democratic republic.
The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz Basic Law.
Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
The president , Frank-Walter Steinmeier 19 March —present , is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers.
He is elected by the Bundesversammlung federal convention , an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.
The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident President of the Bundestag , who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.
The third-highest official and the head of government is the Chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the Bundestag.
The chancellor, Angela Merkel 22 November —present , is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet , similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies.
Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag Federal Diet and Bundesrat Federal Council , which together form the legislative body.
The Bundestag is elected through direct elections , by proportional representation mixed-member. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties.
In the German federal election, , the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.
The debt-to-GDP ratio of Germany had its peak in when it stood at Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.
The Bundesverfassungsgericht Federal Constitutional Court is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.
Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public.
Germany has a low murder rate with 0. Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer. Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Because of the differences in size and population the subdivisions of the states vary.
As of [update] Germany is divided into districts Kreise at a municipal level; these consist of rural districts and urban districts.
Germany has a network of diplomatic missions abroad  and maintains relations with more than countries. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.
The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.
The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. In , Chancellor Gerhard Schröder 's government defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking part in the NATO decisions surrounding the Kosovo War and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.
As of [update] the Bundeswehr employed roughly , service members, including about 9, volunteers. In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence.
In state of defence , the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr. The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only.
But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.
As of [update] , the German military has about 3, troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1, supporting operations against Daesh , in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and in Kosovo.
Until , military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst civilian service , or a six-year commitment to voluntary emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross.
In conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force , a large capital stock , a low level of corruption,  and a high level of innovation.
Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.
Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank , which is headquartered in Frankfurt , the financial centre of continental Europe.
Being home to the modern car , the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world,  and is the fourth largest by production.
Of the world's largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in , the Fortune Global , 28 are headquartered in Germany.
Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises , known as the Mittelstand model.
More than 1, of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions. The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.
Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management , and the renewable energy commercialisation.
Germany is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant.
Research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy. Albert Einstein introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in and respectively.
Along with Max Planck , he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics , in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions.
Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers , including Hans Geiger , the creator of the Geiger counter ; and Konrad Zuse , who built the first fully automatic digital computer.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz 's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication.
The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance. Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world,  with a total of million overnights during In , over Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.
Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.
Germany's most-visited landmarks include e. The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.
With a population of The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries.
The Roma and Sinti live throughout the whole federal territory and the Frisians live on Schleswig-Holstein's western coast, and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.
Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad. After the United States , Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.
The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background. Regarding the immigrant background, In census, as people with immigrant background Personen mit Migrationshintergrund were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after The largest part of people with immigrant background is made up of returning ethnic Germans Aussiedler and Spätaussiedler , followed by Turkish, European Union, and former Yugoslav citizens.
In the s and s, the German governments invited "guest workers" Gastarbeiter to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries.
Many companies preferred to keep these workers employed in Germany after they had trained them and Germany's immigrant population has steadily increased.
As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.
Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions. Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust.
Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.
It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.
Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country. According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2.
According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.
Other religions comprising less than one per cent of Germany's population  are Buddhism with , adherents, Judaism with , adherents, and Hinduism with some , adherents.
All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.
To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.
German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian.
Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.
It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.
Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.
Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.
It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.
However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.
Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.
In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Germany's system of hospices, called spitals , dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the s,  Since the s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system.
Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.
A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.
Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" ,  because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.
Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.
In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers.
Dieterich Buxtehude composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel ; these men were influential composers of the Baroque period.
During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.
Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas.
Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.
Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.
Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter. German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic.
Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.
Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.
Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.
Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.
The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.
When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style , due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century.
Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing , Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.
Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.
Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level. German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz 's contributions to rationalism ; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant ; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ; Arthur Schopenhauer 's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ; Friedrich Nietzsche 's development of perspectivism ; Gottlob Frege 's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy ; Martin Heidegger 's works on Being; Oswald Spengler 's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School by Max Horkheimer , Theodor Adorno , Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential.
Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.
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